Perimetri Perduti is a project which explored the events before, during and after the 1966 Florence flood. The book features watercolour studies by David Cass alongside texts from invited authors. The project has been presented in the Lanfredini Palace, the Italian Cultural Institute and as an event in The Fruitmarket Gallery.
After a prolonged period of intense rain during the first days of November 1966, two Valdarno dams burst south of Florence. During the early hours of 4th November an enormous weight of water was propelled at great speed towards Florence, as the river Arno spilled over, rushing to fill every nook and crevice. Mud, oil, fuel and filthy water spread and rose – to 22 feet (6.7 m) in Santa Croce – covering almost 7000 acres. By the evening of that very same day the waters began to recede, leaving behind some 600,000 tons of mud and debris – a ton of mud for each inhabitant – and utter devastation to the city and its people. The legacy of the flood lives on today.
Cass first visited Florence in late 2010, on a Royal Scottish Academy scholarship. He has returned regularly since 2010, and his artistic response to the city has gradually evolved. Inspired by artist James Hogg's letters written from Florence during November 1966 (published by S.A.C.I.) his Florence in flood artworks are as much an attempt to introduce a new topic to his practice – to his audience – as they are explorative responses to the history of this catastrophic and globally significant weather event. Results of this ongoing project to date can be seen in the not-for-profit book opposite.
The project links a past event with the present: describing the contemporary significance of the flood. Florence – an artist’s mecca – brought to its knees, made vulnerable. Vulnerable to extremes in weather, but also as a result of man. The artworks included in the project present an irony too, describing a stark contrast between the perceived image of the city (pristine and thriving) yet demonstrating the reality of its susceptibility: the catastrophic and unnecessary damage one event wreaked.
The first event linked to the project took place in SACI gallery, Florence: an exhibition in collaboration with artist Stephen Kavanagh. A solo exhibition was then held in The Scottish Gallery, Edinburgh (Edinburgh is Florence’s official twin city) and works from the series then travelled to London (to the Royal Watercolour Society) where Winsor & Newton awarded a set of the below watercolours their top prize for innovation in the medium.
As interest in the project grew, three further events were held: most notable of which was an event commemorating the 50th anniversary of the flood – 4th November 2016 – in the headquarters of the British Institute of Florence, overlooking the Arno river. This exhibition ran for the whole of November 2016. The project was then presented in The Fruitmarket Gallery’s events space in January 2017, and the Italian Cultural Institute shortly after that. Paintings & supporting materials were exhibited; talks given by Edinburgh's Lord Provost and Royal Scottish Academy Academician George Donald. The project was backed by a group of sponsors, who are listed below.
The project as a whole aims to illustrate the events up to and during the inundation on November 4th 1966, to describe the aftermath and destruction, and to touch upon the what if? What if this happens again: a fear that engulfed Florence during severe rain in late January 2014, and again in November 2016 as this book was first launched. A fear shared by other Italian towns, and in other locations around Europe, that have endured flooding. Historically Florence has suffered a major flood once a century. As documented in the press 'the situation has actually got worse than in 1966', according to Raffaello Nardi, who heads up a special commission responsible for safeguarding the Arno river basin. This potential risk prompts concern, in part, because of the importance of this city, what it means to the world of art and culture – both currently and historically – the irreplaceable items, objects, artefacts and architectural features its walls contain. Not to mention the intangible, the belief – thanks to the rich catalogue of those that have come before – that Florence is a (if not the) mecca of the art world. Cimabue’s Cross lost over 70% of its paint. Donatello’s Penitent Mary Magdalene was stained with thick brown oil. Ghiberti’s Gates of Paradise lost half of their golden panels. Twenty-seven thousand square feet of frescoes in Florence’s central churches and museums were almost completely destroyed.
Florence exists not only for those that live there, holiday there, study there, but also in the collective memory and imagination. Why else did the world come together in saving Florence? So-called Mud Angels travelled on their own steam, from all over the world to help in the rescue effort, others sent much-needed funds.
Perimetri Perduti features texts from authors with a connection to Florence: Robert Clark, Patricia Emison, David Hewson, Candia McWilliam & Giles Waterfield. The book also features first-hand accounts from Mud Angels who travelled to Florence to help clean & salvage.
Anthony Alioto, Vienna | Nick & Vivian Bannerman, Scottish Borders | Lesley & Brian Knox, Edinburgh | Ray & Sal Landon, County Durham | Simon & Angie Lewin, Edinburgh | Susan Mackie & Pascal Bernard, Paris | Clare Mackie, Brighton | Candia McWilliam, Edinburgh | Claire O’Connor, Somerville, MA | Daniel Rawling, London | Kirsi Sutherland, Edinburgh | Giles Waterfield, London | David & Susie Wolfenden, Scottish Borders | Collection Simon Paul: a Private Art Collection in Memory of Simon MacFadyen, Edinburgh | Sandie Walker-Hepburn of Powder Grey Interiors & Lifestyle, Scottish Borders
Thanks to all those who have contributed to this ongoing project, and particularly the British Institute of Florence (chiefly its supportive and enthusiastic director Julia Race and her team). Thank you Patricia Emison, for your writing and continued support. The book title is the brain-child of Glasgow based artist Giovanni Giacoia: giovannigiacoia.com.